The whole idea of solid state battery changing our future started a decade ago, all we knew at the time was that lithium ion batteries has changed our lives. Powering smartphones, it will continue to do so powering smartphones with a smaller form factor, and its other application with great potential in March, one which is electric vehicles. The central argument is a solid state batteries are the ultimate form of lithium batteries, safer, more durable and with higher energy density and therefore it must be the future of course, at the time, solid state batteries have not yet taken a centre stage, since traditional ones still have much room for improvement. But after a decade of development and research, the question has emerged. Whether solid state batteries can finally take a major role in our future. Future of Batteries
To industries have propelled battery technology to the centre stage of our lives, smartphones and electric cars, during the 20th century, we have gone from nickel ion batteries to alkaline batteries to nickel metal hydride batteries, and finally to lithium ion batteries. It was not until the first smartphone, the lithium ion batteries become so important to us. And it was not until mass production didn’t ECM ion batteries become economically viable for electric cars and with course talking about the Gigafactory of Tesla. This is the part of the video for me to give you a brief idea of what makes up the chemistry of traditional and solid state lithium ion batteries. Most batteries are made up of three components cathode anode and electrolyte when a battery is being used, electrons go from anode to cathode through the circuit powering your brand new Tesla reverse happens when the battery is being charged.
The difference between the two is that lithium ion batteries have liquid electrolyte, whereas solid state batteries have solid electrolyte. That’s it simple and straightforward. The complex part is the diverse range of materials used for these three components and the characteristics of these materials, solid electrolyte is one type of material available, and it is advantageous in many ways.
First, it makes solid state batteries safer. This is easy to understand as solid state batteries does not need metal casing to contain liquid electrolyte. On top of that, solid state batteries also have better energy density which means your 300 mile range Tesla could run as far as 700 miles with a solid state battery, your smartphone can sustain for days without charging and never have to worry about a depleted cell again for Tesla, it uses two types of batteries for its two branches of businesses and ca batteries for its car business and NMC battery for its solar business, both are normal lithium ion batteries, the former has a higher energy density and it also has a smaller form factor, and the latter is cheaper, but the idea is that Tesla might change the solid state when the technology matures for solid state batteries.
Many battery chemistry are in trial and we do not yet know which one will emerge the winner by the middle of the next decade. For example, the famous scientist john v good enough has published a paper in 2016, explaining why lithium glass battery could be the future with higher energy density and longer life cycle. This battery has a glass electrolyte, hence the name. Many other materials are proposed to use a solid electrolyte in solid state batteries including ceramics and sulphide, a few cathode materials are also experimented including lithium sulphur and lithium air lithium sulphur is 10 times larger than effective value of lithium cobalt oxide software is enabled to be used as a cathode and meitheamh electrify applications, because it is solid electrolytes causing a dramatic decrease in the lifetime of a battery.
This is why sulphur is currently being heavily studied in solid state applications. Lithium air is also considered because of the high theoretical capacity. So, what is the result of putting all these technologies together, changing the future of energy storage. Not so fast. In addition to a long development cycle and many more technical challenges. Here are the generally agreed benefits of solid state batteries. Researchers found that lithium sulphur batteries can potentially improve energy density tenfold from 300 watt hour per kg to 2600 watt hours per kg and if we combine the sulphur with class electrolyte to make all solid state lithium sulphur batteries, safety and longer charging cycle, could be possible.
Let’s think about this for a second. If the energy density of our smartphone battery and car battery could be improved fivefold iPhones will be usable five days before recharge and Tesla will be usable for 1500 miles before recharge. This will be a strong enabler in both industry, hence changing our future, or at least the future of on road, transportation, and our social life. However, in a review article published in 2019 which summarises the reality of all solid state batteries and pointed out rightfully that practical application is hampered by the high resistance rising at the solid to solid electrode electrolyte interface, which basically means that changing electrolyte from liquid to solid is a challenging task, and we have not yet overcome some very fundamental technical difficulties. Note that this review was published in 2018. We’re still far from commercialising the technology is fundamental technical challenges still exist and link the paper down below for your reference.